Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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Wolfers, Director of the Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research, has long been a respected pioneer and leader in this field of political philosophy.

Let us assume that several individuals were attending a horse race, where they found themselves unable to see the race clearly because of the crowds who had arrived before them.

Yet, if one considers the conditions of danger and opportunity, of fear and appetite that collboration to exist in order to produce anything approaching inexorable compulsion, one will arnlld that the highly abstract model used by exponents of the states-as-actors theory can- not offer more than a first approximation to reality.

Since it takes Amity and Enmity Among Nations 31 two to make a war, two parties must decide that war is preferable to its alternative.

It is not surprising that UNESCO should have become an exponent of the discrod, since it was established, as Atnold Dunn points out, 2 with a view to constructing peace in the minds of men. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. Human behavior is human behavior, after all, on whatever level of social intercourse and under whatever cir- cumstances it occurs. If the latter benefit the nation as a whole, this can only be in an indirect fashion.

Under these circumstances, they may forfeit an immediate national gain for the sake of sustaining the rule of law with its long-run benefits. All alliances or col- lective defense agreements fall into this second category. The extensive debate about the chief determinants of foreign policy covers all that has been written over the ages about the causes of war and conflict, about aggression and imperialism, as well as about the causes of relatively long periods of peace and inter- national harmony.

There is an inclination, particularly in the United States, to exaggerate the importance of feelings of friendship or gratitude for the maintenance of amical relations. No matter how far theory succeeds in elaborating the rules and principles of military deterrence, for instance, it does not provide the statesman with propositions from which the proper policy for coping with a specific would-be aggressor can be deduced; yet the fate of mankind may hinge on his choice of policy in the particular instance.


Nothing of the kind is intended here. As another consequence, enmity between two nations generates pressure on others to take sides.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers

It should be added, however, that even if foreign policy were directed predominantly xnd a single goal, such a goal would not monopolize the entire activity of states, except in the extreme emergency of a war. Another case of what may turn out often to be excessive arnolv for a milieu goal takes the form of advice to wealthy countries to concentrate on lessening mass poverty and economic maldistribution throughout the world.

You may send this item to up to five recipients. The United States, to give another example, has no assurance that a Yugoslav desire to restore solidar- discorf with the Collaboragion bloc might not at any moment gain the upper hand over the wish to maintain cordial collaborayion with the United States.

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In losing sight of the individuals who comprise a state, exponents of the states-as- actors theory may come up with a relatively accurate analysis of national behavior in a period when value patterns remain static, but they are more likely to be mistaken in a period of upheaval when elites colpaboration values undergo rapid and radical change.

Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Yet, if the nation’s interests dispassionately perceived shall guide states- men, it is necessary that they be able to disassociate themselves from their own private feelings and from those of the public when as statesmen they shape the relationships of their country with other nations.

Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. A comprehensive theory does not call for a division of inter- national politics into two compartments, one comprising collaborwtion realm of the state as the actor in power politics, the other the realm of the human actors, the masses of common men with their psychological traits and collaoration pursuit of human purposes.

They work to convince others of their impartial friendliness, expecting that abstention from making demands on and interfering with others will evoke a response of at least diplomatic amity.

Similarly, the analyst of world events is not condemned to move exclusively on the “fire and water” level of his discipline.

Be the first to review this item Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Members of the groups just mentioned are engaged in parallel efforts to reach a common goal by outdoing one another.


Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

Inward-oriented co-operation does not come easily to sovereign governments. No serious analyst would contend today that behavior in the international field, or for that matter in any other field of human activity, could be satisfactorily explained by reference to a single determinant. However, this dis- sociation between the cold-blooded pursuit of the national interest and human feelings is never complete. Only in exceptional cases, as in Western Europe, have nations gone far in committing themselves to such co-operation even in the economic field where the opportunity and the advan- tages are most apparent.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics. (Book, ) []

Get to Know Us. Here, the corresponding Internal pressure for action comes from appetite or temptation rather than from fear. If Nasser had attacked the British homeland, thereby really “setting the house on fire,” the reaction of any British government, whatever the personal traits of its members, could have been predicted.

Even in assessing the importance of a mountain range or a stretch of ocean, the relationship between the nations on both sides of the mountains or the sea determines whether they constitute a protective shield or an undesirable barrier.

Similarly, and even prior to Woodrow Wilson, the United States has engaged in policies directed toward spreading democracy abroad, especially by promoting the institution of free elections in other countries.

Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es. If it did, there would be war permanently. Statesmen as well as scholars are for- ever engaged, therefore, in probing the decisions by which others set their course. The Soviet leaders themselves may not be able to distinguish between their national goals and their revolutionary or universalist goals because ever since Lenin declared Russia to be the “Fatherland of the Revolution” they have been able to claim, sometimes to the dismay of Communists abroad, that what was good for Russia–and only what was good for Russia–was good for Communism.

It would be ironic to characterize the relationship between Israel and its Arab neighbors as a competition for territory when the latter desire to wipe the former off the map while the former is seeking to hold on to or possibly enlarge its territory.